Journal References


  • Normal Range of Motion of the Cervical Spine, Youdas JW, Garrett TR, Suman VJ, Bogard CL, Hallman V, and Carey JR, An Initial Goniometric Study, Physical Therapy, November 1992
    • The study determined normal values for cervical active range of motion measurements using the CROM. Normal values were determined for 337 healthy subjects whose age spanned 9 decades.
  • Reliability of Measurements of the Cervical Spine Range of Motion - Comparison of Three Methods, Youdas JW, Carey JR, Garrett TR, Physical Therapy, February 1991.
    • The study determined the reliabilities within and between persons measuring active cervical range of motion on 60 subjects with orthopedic disorders using three different methods. The study concluded that when different therapist measured the same subject's cervical range of motion the CROM was the most reliable testing instrument.
  • Intertester Reliability of the Cervical Range of Motion Device, Rheault W, Albright B, Beyers C, Franta M, Johnson A, Skowronek M, Dougherty J, Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy, March 1992.
    • The study investigated the intertester reliability of the CROM on 22 subjects with a history of cervical dysfunction. The results demonstrated that the CROM was a reliable device for assessing active cervical range of motion.
  • Intratester and Intertester Reliability of the Cervical Range of Motion Device, Capuano-Pucci D, Rheault W, Aukai J, Bracke M, Day R, Pastrick M, Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, April 1991.
    • The study investigated the intratester and intertester reliability of the CROM for measuring cervical flexion, extension, lateral flexion, and rotation on 20 healthy subjects. The conclusion was "The CROM has many benefits including ease of application and reliability".
  • Reliability of Measuring Forward Head Posture in a Clinical Setting, Garrett TR, Youdas JW, Madson TJ, Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy, March 1993.
    • The study investigated within tester and between tester reliabilities for clinical measurements of static, sitting, forward head posture using the cervical range of motion (CROM) instrument. The study concluded that measurements of forward head posture made by physical therapists trained in the correct use of the CROM instrument are reliable.
  • Reliability and Concurrent Validity of the BROM II for Measuring Lumbar Mobility, Breum J, Wiberg J, Bolton JE, Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics, October 1995
    • To establish the reliability of the BROM II device measuring lumbar mobility in the sagittal, coronal and transverse planes and its validity against the double inclinometer method. Forward flexion and lateral bending, Results indicate that the BROM measures for intertester reliability were in the fair to high reliability categories at 0.76 to 0.95. The BROM measures for intratrial reliability were in the good to high reliability categories at 0.89 to 0.98.
  • The Accuracy of the Palpation Meter (PALM) for Measuring Pelvic Crest Height Difference and Leg Length Discrepancy, Matthew R. Petrone, Jennifer Guinn, Amanda Reddin, Thomas G. Sutlive, Journal of orthopaedic and sports
    physical therapy June 2003
    • The PALM is a reliable and valid instrument for measuring PD. Clinicians should consider this convenient, cost-effective clinical tool as an alternative to radiographic measurement of pelvic crest height difference













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